食品物流打破了第三方物流之间的差异, 4PLs和5PLs以及为什么这些合作关系很重要, especially in a time of crisis.

众所周知,冠状病毒病(COVID-19)大流行给供应链的几个领域带来了压力. Restaurants closed, leaving foodservice distributors to pivot into direct-to-consumer (DTC). Grocery stores shifted to keep up with online shopping, and for some, implement DTC delivery. Even, 冷食品和饮料加工者改变了他们的生产方式, 储存和运输产品,以满足由于消费者囤货而涌入的需求.

According to a study by Gordon Haskett Research Advisors, 由于COVID-19, 41%的在线杂货购物者第一次在网上购买杂货, 这可能会导致购买行为的长期变化.

“E-commerce, online shopping, food delivery, 随着经济的重新开放,杂货配送和几乎所有其他行业都将经历高速增长,” says David Miller, 平台服务总经理 3PL Central. “这意味着面向这些细分市场的第三方物流和四方物流将继续保持持续增长.”

In a time like today, COVID-19破坏了供应链中的许多环节, 正是第三方物流(3PL)供应商坚持让产品从A地移动到B地.

In fact, 2019年,第三方物流市场规模超过1万亿美元,预计2020年至2026年期间将以9%的复合年增长率增长, according to a study 由Global Market Insights, Inc .提供.

But, 当涉及到破译一个3PL, 4PL and even a 5PL, there are many things to consider.

First off, neither a 3PL or 4PL is better or worse for the cold food and beverage industry; it just depends on a company’s core competency, resource needs and budget, says Darlene Wolf, 战略合作伙伴高级副总裁 Arrive Logistics.

“内部投资的唯一缺点是失去了及时有效地做出改变的灵活性,” Wolf adds. “第三方物流和四方物流能够也应该在行业中建立最佳实践,因为他们正在与各种面临各种挑战的公司合作, 给他们更多的经验来应对意外.”

A 3PL manages outsourced logistics and distribution activities for a specific customer, while a 4PL manages customer 3PLs and provides complete visibility within a one-stop shop, says Don Klug, 销售配送中心管理副总裁, Penske Logistics.

“第三方物流和第四方物流的主要区别在于第四方物流对客户供应链的控制和责任,” he adds. “并不是所有的第三方物流都会转变为第四方物流, and the main reason is that they may not want to offer that specific service. Also, 其他公司可能只提供第四方物流服务, where they have a network of 3PLs to do the physical work; the 4PL then provides the complete visibility piece to offer overall accountability of the supply chain to the customer. There is such a thing as a 5PL, 但它只是一个通过多种解决方案和技术管理多个客户端的第四方物流.”

第三方也直接负责设计, 为客户供应链的特定部分实施、操作或管理解决方案, 而4PLs则提供一个涵盖多个不同方的综合物流和供应链生态系统, including different 3PLs, carriers, 仓库服务提供商和其他解决方案和服务提供商, according to Rajiv Saxena, senior vice president, 供应链解决方案和创新 Kenco Logistic Services.

“与第三方物流的一个关键区别是,第三方物流不管理或没有责任执行或管理日常活动. 4PLs设计解决方案框架,并根据4PLs提供的解决方案框架的相关部分进行第三方工作,” adds Saxena. “4PLs go beyond service providers. Like 3PLs, 他们提供与不同类型的解决方案和服务提供商的全面集成,涵盖供应链的所有方面,并对客户的长期愿景和目标有更深入的了解. 第三方物流和第四方物流都可以来自同一家公司——这实际上是基于客户的需求和供应商的能力.”

3PLs和4PLs在这一点上也是相似的, “它们都能让货主通过管理供应链和物流需求,专注于自己的核心竞争力。,” says David Commiskey, 客户解决方案副总裁 GlobalTranz. “Now, in terms of how they’re different—a common misconception is that 3PLs are brokers, and while the two are similar, they’re not interchangeable. 3PLs act as a strategic partner for shippers as they move goods across the country, 而且他们也要“承担风险”,因为他们要承担每一批货的定价和风险. 4PLs管理公司的整个供应链, also taking on that consultative role while managing other logistics providers.”

第三方物流和第四方物流的另一个区别是托运人关系,以及它如何整合到一个更全国性或全球性的战略,跨越供应链的所有方面.

“Typically, 第三方物流为第四方物流提供基于资产的服务,第四方物流将这些数据集成为一个更广泛的服务和为托运人提供的技术解决方案. 第四方物流关系的价值是在沟通领域内,托运人的供应链的一致性, technology, 跨托运人供应链的关键领域的报告和集成关系管理,” says Marc Lebovitz, president of Romark Logistics.

At the end of the day though, all third-party logistics companies are 3PLs.

“A 3PL becomes a 4PL, 亦称领先物流供应商(LLP), 当它参与和管理其他物流方时, resources or technologies to enhance its service offerings with increased capacity, expanded geographic reach or to provide additional capabilities as part of a total solution,” says Darin Cooprider, 消费品包装副总裁 Ryder System, Inc. “For the food and beverage industry, which experiences seasonal peaks and troughs at different times of the year, 3PL/4PL运输关系的价值在于拥有一个可以监督和管理供应链所有方面的物流供应商. That includes executing transactional business in some geographies or lanes, 在可行且具有成本效益的情况下,充分利用普通运营商的能力和资源,然后将整个网络整合到一个单一的交易管理和可见性工具集下,并配有商业智能工具,为决策提供信息.”

Plus, 第三方物流非常擅长提供多种服务, 利用技术和专业知识为希望专注于其核心业务的bob手机登陆创造价值, adds Matt Parry, 物流高级副总裁 Werner Enterprises Inc.

“(第三方物流)能够利用规模创造一个灵活的, technologically enabled supply chain, supported by industry expertise, 哪些托运人不能自己做,” he says. “服务范围广泛,遍及第三方物流市场, 但要始终包含发货的核心执行功能,并经常添加后台和合规功能. Typically, 4PLs are most prevalent in large, complex global supply chains. 他们通过将最好的服务提供商(直接或通过第三方物流)整合到具有复杂信息管理和建模能力的单一技术平台中来创造价值. 第四方物流通常为客户监督更多的管理职能, including back-office functions, product sourcing, 各种渠道的预算和分销服务. 随着时间的推移,第四方物流可以通过其内部和外部利益相关者的多样化网络提供更可持续的成本节约, however, they are often less nimble creating risk in rapidly changing market conditions.”

Meanwhile, 5PL is a newer concept that focuses on the management of supply chain networks, not just supply chains, says Jack Gerstner, vice president, 协同运输管理 Coyote Logistics.

“Often linked to e-commerce, 5PL解决方案将包括代表一个或多个客户的物流供应商网络的管理,” Gerstner says.

However, others in the industry see no difference between a 3PL, 4PL and 5PL.

“从服务提供商的角度来看,这真的没有什么区别. It just describes the relationship between the members and partners in your supply chain,” says Rock Magnan, president, RK Logistics Group. “一家公司可以同时是第三方物流和第四方物流. 大多数公司都认为自己是第三方物流公司. It’s just a hierarchy, a way to define where in the service mix the participant resides. 我是一名仓库操作员,为客户填写订单,然后选择运输供应商交付该订单. In this case, I’m both—a 3PL providing warehousing services for the owner of the freight, 和第四方物流分包合同与一个独立的卡车运输公司交付订单的运输服务.”

Making the transition

While there are several similarities and differences between a 3PL and 4PL, there are some providers making the transition to become one over the other, 即使这是客户问题的短期解决方案.

“For a shipper, 从第三方物流到第四方物流的转变通常来自于一个整合的国家或全球生态系统的愿望. 这一举措带来了极大的信任和互利, 随着这种关系成为托运人提高能见度和节省成本的总体战略的一部分,” says Lebovitz. “From our experience, 5PL关系通常与在电子商务物流支持方面具有强大能力、管理多种关系的供应商联系在一起. 这些供应商关注的是供应网络,而第三方物流/第四方物流则更关注供应链.”

当第三方物流开始接受经纪人的业务而不是直接与客户合作时,它也将跨入第四方物流的领域.

“这可能有很多原因, 但往往是基于帮助其他地区物流企业实际上扩大其足迹, 参与一个项目,为客户提供由区域服务提供商组成的全国性解决方案, managed by a primary 3PL or 5PL,” says Miller. “第三方物流也可以在短时间内过渡到第四方物流,以适应本地竞争或合作仓库的溢出. 拥有能够同时支持第三方物流和四方物流的可见性的技术对于开发商来说是非常重要的, grocers, 零售商和供应链中的其他各方.”

当审视你自己的供应链以及如何改善它时,沃尔夫建议从最基本的做起.

“供应商、托运人、3pls——每个人都应该履行他们的承诺. 如果你和一个不能兑现承诺的人一起工作,为什么还要和他们一起工作呢?” she adds. “当一家公司将所有的供应链责任外包给第三方物流公司时,第三方物流可以转变为第四方物流公司, and then that 3PL leverages others 3PLs to complement their service offerings. 最初的3PL实质上已经变成了第4PL,因为它仍然要对最初外包供应链责任的公司负责.”

One is not necessarily better or worse, according to Geoff Kelley, president of Nolan Transportation Group.

“It really depends on the complexity of the shipper and their needs,” he adds. “If the 3PL’s capabilities don’t address the full supply chain needs of the shipper, 第四方物流可以通过物流供应商组合为客户提供更全面的解决方案.”

Technology takes 3PLs to a new level

It’s hard to have a discussion about 3PLs and 4PLs without talking about technology, says Abtin Hamidi, chief executive officer at Torch 3PL.

“最初,大流行暴露了技术基础设施的优势和弱点. 拥有最现代化平台的游戏能够更轻松地应对意外挑战. 那些使用过时平台的公司无法生存. Surprisingly, bob手机登陆也认识到在内部和与客户之间建立一种强大的信任文化的重要性,” he adds. “一个重要的趋势是,企业正在缩小对其生产的特定产品的关注,并将其他非核心业务职能外包. For example, several 健康饮料公司已经调动了他们的资源 to create a better product, and outsourced other functions of their business such as transportation and supply chain.” [Go to http://foodlogistics.com/21128755 了解更多关于第三方物流将如何继续成为功能性饮料品牌分销过程中不可分割的一部分].

一种旨在改善3PL和4PL体验的技术是应用程序编程接口(API)平台.

“API连接是在整个供应链上或多或少实时共享信息的好方法. 它帮助链接点解决方案,并连接供应商和他们的第三方物流到完整的供应链,” says Miller. “利用无纸化仓储和移动扫描技术的仓库不仅能够验证活动, reducing mistakes, but also onboard new warehouse employees quickly and record user KPIs and productivity metrics. 这些指标可以分层到商业智能工具中,让第三方物流和他们的客户进行基准测试, iterate and improve their operations, inventory distribution, lane negotiations and more. 从整个供应链系统中收集和组合这些指标,可以让第三方物流和他们的客户做出更好的商业决策. 利用商业智能共享高度可视化的性能仪表板也可以帮助第三方监控, 达成并超越服务水平协议.”

其他解决方案需要按需提供货运报价和运输, 实时负载跟踪和可见性, procurement solutions, 网络优化与负荷整合技术.

“In the past, 非基于资产的运输能力为托运人提供了在不同经济环境中灵活应变的能力. 现在,它也适用于其他服务. For example, 当前的形势表明,管理(运输管理系统)模型内在的灵活性和透明度可以创造巨大的价值——在随着市场变化迅速调整流程和采购策略方面, 以及许多计费模式的可变成本特性. 在经济衰退的环境下,旨在满足bob手机登陆两个方向需求的合同能很好地发挥作用, 并且可以为那些选择以这种方式外包部分TMS能力的公司创造很多竞争优势. Furthermore, 那些承诺迅速实施并在第一年就能完全自筹资金的项目往往效果最好,” says Gerstner.

For its part, Ryder introduced RyderShare, 这是一个独一无二的协作物流平台,使每个人都能通过供应链运输货物, including shippers, receivers, 运营商和服务提供商应实时合作,以防止代价高昂的延迟,并提高效率.

“Everyone talks about visibility, 能看到你的货在哪里, but that’s just the beginning,” says Cooprider. “For visibility to be meaningful, it must be in real-time, not in 10- to 15-minute increments, 这样你就能确切地知道你的货什么时候会到, if there are potential delays and the ability to collaborate and take action in real-time. 没有这个,你只是在地图上追踪一辆卡车.”

Kenco开设了专用的物理仓库空间,进行了扩建 the Supply Chain Innovation Lab, 为Kenco的创新专家团队提供真正的测试设施,以评估增值技术,并为这些解决方案提供先进的可见性.

“从自动驾驶无人机到先进的视觉拾取镜, 有很多新技术正在被部署和开发中,这将有助于维持和提高供应链的效率和安全性,” says Saxena. “新技术可以更快地做出决策,周转过程几乎是无缝的. 人工智能(AI)和机器学习(ML)通过提供放大的数据管理能力,提高了可视性,在行业中掀起了热潮. 通过先进的AI和ML数据分析解决方案, logistics providers can collect, manage, 分析和利用数据提供解决方案和决策支持. 这些工具带来了预测分析, 随着技术的不断发展,数据可以为用户提供预测和规范分析,如体积预测等领域, inventory deployment, 设备维护和劳动计划. 特别是食品和饮料行业, analytic technologies are also useful in meeting different regulations. Additionally, 利用人工智能和ML的物联网(IoT)解决方案允许远程监控和控制.”

Meanwhile, warehouse management systems (WMS), 运输管理系统, 企业资源规划(ERP)和设备供应商正在更新他们的能力,以更好地配合托运人不断变化的期望, customers and warehouse, 包装和运输供应商.

“这些改进旨在利用分析和数据推动整个供应链的效率和成本降低,” says Lebovitz. “物料处理和生产设备制造商正在他们的产品中实施自动化,以创建一个更高效和安全的方法来完成日常任务. 这与劳动力市场的约束和限制相结合,创造了更强的投资回报率评估,使这些改进能够被积极地看待.”

数字技术和自动化的进步,也为物流行业的领导者提供了加强供应链战略所需的工具.

“越来越多的远程传感器连接到工业物联网(IIoT),用于监测温度, shipment location, transit time and other metrics during transportation to prevent spoilage or contamination,” says Commiskey. 无人机和传感器也被用于检查农场和仓库,以达到公司和政府的标准. 机器人过程自动化(RPA)使第三方和4PLs定期获取关键的bob手机登陆和统计数据成为可能, 在大流行期间,要与客户共享实时更新信息并告知策略,哪一个变得越来越重要. 技术支持的第三方和4PLs正在将这些功能构建到他们的TMS中.”

“所有这些技术使食品托运人不仅能够了解供应链的每一个细节, but to also mine data that can optimize their networks and strategy in the future. 随着国家集体寻求回归新常态, 利用现有的数据,并保持在新的见解的顶端,可以成就或破坏一个公司的供应链战略的成功,” he adds.

Likewise, electronic logging devices (ELD) help increase hands-free communication, while digital freight matching, dynamic route optimization and load stacking help reduce overall miles and empty miles, resulting in improved efficiency, sustainability and safety, says Kelley.

“Much of this is facilitated by the adaption of IoT devices and improved tracking/visibility. IoT and geofencing also allow for participants to know when a truck has arrived on property, 可能减少拘留和停留时间,” he adds.

The 3PL, 第四方物流和第五方物流行业也在不断探索在整个物流行业中使用区块链. 

“区块链五年前还是一项新兴技术, 但直到最近,当bob手机登陆观察到区块链或类似技术能够对行业产生安全和优化影响的合法使用案例复苏时,应用才受到限制,” says Parry. “Some examples include the ability to manage cold chain and distribute vehicle, 设备或载波数据安全可靠地提供给有关各方. 该技术可以确保物流参与者跟踪并积极遵守现有和新的法律法规,并可以安全地报告违规行为. Improved visibility of freight and its transportation across shippers, 承运人和中间的任何第三方.” 

The future for 3PLs

Partnering with a 3PL or 4PL is critical when market conditions are uncertain, says Commiskey, “because they are able to provide nimble solutions that align with business goals. It’s important to consider factors like scale and technology when choosing a partner, 但物流仍然是一个关系驱动的业务,没有与运营商和其他行业利益相关者建立正确的关系, 物流领导者看不到他们所寻求的结果.”

And, by nature, logistics providers are managers of multiple resources, adds Magnan.

“有些是他们自己的,有些是他们外包的. For the shipper, bob手机登陆希望有一个负责任的人, 压倒了派对一号的喉咙,’ if you will. I may give that firm a contract to manage my logistics worldwide,” says Magnan. “这种关系可能是第三方物流或第四方物流. Basically, 我依靠我的3PL/4PL成为供应链管理的专家, 而不是由内部团队来做.”

Plus, the COVID-19 pandemic came at a time when tariffs posed additional complexity.

“这两个事件同时发生,全球供应链失去了顺序,全球不同的地区隔离,在不同的时间受到影响,破坏程度非常不同,” says Lebovitz. “The global supply chain was able to deal with these interruptions skillfully, 多亏了一些额外的库存措施,许多地方都已经到位, 在克服重大供应中断方面有了良好的开端.”

利用数据的力量将推动创新和改进第三方物流和四方物流的执行.

“COVID-19暴露了货主供应链中的许多缺口,” says Joe Carlier, 全球销售高级副总裁, Penske Logistics. “Consumer behavior has shifted, 迅速适应新常态的能力比以往任何时候都更为重要. bob手机登陆面前有那么多不确定因素, shippers will need strong partnerships with proven capabilities in engineering, technology as well as execution.”

covid -19后的挑战与其说是产品在供应链上的移动方式,不如说是要跟上不断加速的消费者需求.

“食品和饮料托运人面临的挑战仍然是如何支持电子商务实现和最后一英里服务的成本效益, and it is unlikely that the future will be a one-size-fits-all strategy,” says Cooprider. “In fact, 我相信,未来将属于那些能够最有效地将复杂性融入其供应链,并无缝地、有效地管理这种复杂性的bob手机登陆.”

如果说COVID-19大流行在可预见的未来破坏了供应链,这是轻描淡写的, continues Commiskey.

由于商业和世界贸易的急剧下降,第二季度的货物运输需求大幅下降,” he adds. “供应链战略要保持弹性, 尤其是在前所未有的市场条件下, it’s critical that 3PLs and 4PLs have deep carrier and industry relationships in place. In crisis situations, constant communications are crucial, 因为他们保持一个合作伙伴之间的托运人和他们的3PL强有力的同时减轻中断的影响.”

COVID-19 has also caused a fundamental disconnect in supply chains focused on moving food.

“The traditional commercial, government and industrial food markets where these products would normally go have dried up. 正常的供应链和终端用户(这些商品的接受者)要么关闭,要么以以前产能的一小部分运营. It’s not that farmers have over-produced; it’s just that the supply chains [that] served traditional large consumers–government food programs, restaurants, 工业厨房操作,如学校和大学宿舍, as well as large event venues like stadiums and ballparks–were disrupted. 这些市场一夜之间就安静下来了. “Exacerbating the problem is how goods in these supply chains were labeled, branded, packaged and shipped. Most of these deliveries were in large bulk quantities or millions of small quantities, 例如,个人提供牛奶盒为学校午餐项目,不能过渡到零售食品杂货销售. 供应链不能,现在仍然不能. It’s not necessarily a problem of not enough food, or where food is sourced geographically. 这更多的是一个行业中断的问题,以及无法重新定向和重新包装这些食品消耗品,以通过替代供应链结构流动. 这为bob手机登陆摆脱大流行提供了一个真正的机会, 农民和企业应该思考如何重新设计供应链,使之更加灵活和有弹性, 从耕作方法到生产再到包装, labeling, distribution and consumption. 而且,要做好准备,当学校和其他为数百万人提供食物的组织开始增加人手的时候.”

图片来源:潘世奇物流,原创文章发布在这里: http://www.foodlogistics.com/3pl-4pl/article/21136416/3pl-vs-4pl-vs-5plheres-the-difference

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